Mines Douai was founded in 1878 by a presidential decree. At this time, it trained qualified staff for mining activities. In 1965, the School became an Engineering College, no longer concerned with mining but industrial activities. In 1980, after a constant evolution based on adaptation, innovation and anticipation, Mines Douai became the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines.

Mines Douai is a Public Institution depending on the French State, especially on the Ministry of Industry.